A part of early cinema shows was the old fashioned sing a long. This had developed during the magic lantern days before the moving picture shows into an entrancing form of entertainment and continued as an item during the early cinema era. Illustrated songs were sung to a piano accompaniment with lantern slides illustrating each line. Audiences were invited to join in the chorus. The title slide showed the cover of the sheet music and this music was often on sale in the foyer of the theatre. Because they always were the popular songs of the era, each song very quickly went out of fashion and were discarded. Added to this the extreme fragility of the glass slide, very few sets remain today. The slides started as simple black and white photos illustrating each line of a song, but developed to complicated double exposures and hand colouring. By World War One they were beginning to go out of fashion. We are very lucky to have a fan of our show, Mr Bruce Medhurst, whose father was a projectionist at the South Hurstville Theatre and preserved an amazing cache of these slides. To him I must give my heartfelt thanks in allowing me to copy and perform these slides.
Even theatres not offering illustrated song slides, still used glass slides for advertisements and announcements. The advertisements were not very different to today’s film theatres, but the announcements were often to teach the audience how to behave in a film show. This style of advertising slide I have used for interval, here accompanied by a pianola playing rolls from the Mastertouch Company which was once based in Petersham. The use of just a piano or pianola for some parts of a show was done in the era to give the orchestra a chance to rest.
Read the history of illustrated songs below, written by the owner of the largest collection of slides in the world and who has helped to fill Bruce’s collection.
Foley is a funny term but all it is, is the reproduction of everyday sounds for use in filmmaking or for radio.
The term Foley was named after Jack Foley who began what this art in the twenties. He had started working with Universal Studios in 1914 during the silent movie era, but talkies soon came. Foley then became part of the sound crew that would turn Universal’s then upcoming “silent” musical Show Boat into the musical that it is known as today. Because the microphones used for filming could not pick up more than dialogue, other sounds had to be added in after the film was shot. Foley and his small crew would project the film on a screen while recording a single track of audio that would capture their live sound effects in real time.This was not so different from what was done to the silents except the sound artists had to be at the film’s screening. An early print shows how it was done then.
Jack Foley created sounds for films until his death in 1967. His methods are still employed today.Foley artists look to recreate the sounds that the film portrays.
Creating Foley is a lot of fun and can be added to any silent film you can find. My people created the sound for three short Buster Keaton films last year and discovered what a genius he was, and how funny. Below I have given a list of noise makers that give effective sounds and where you can get them.
Fire Crinkle cellophane
Horses hooves Coconut shells cut in half and stuffed with padding
Birds flapping A pair of rubber gloves flapped
Sliding Door A skate board rolled down a length of aluminium then hitting a door stopper.
Ocean Churning a bucket of water with the mike held close
Thunder Large balloons containing metal bearings shaken close to a mike.
Sword fight Two garden trowels hit together
Crowd noises Cue cards which tell the audience the sound that is needed
Brake screech Sheet of glass in a box on which you pull a large nail across
Falling body A telephone book wrapped in gaffer tape, then dropped.
Footsteps A pair of leather shoes on your hands and walk across a wooden table
Winches etc. Toy ratchet
Creaking door Cotton rope rubbed with rosin and wrapped tightly around a dowel.
Drowning Bubbles blown through a straw in a glass of water
Gunshot Flicking a clip on a clip board
There are lots more things you can make to imitate real sounds, just keep your ears open but the most important and possibly the most fun sound effect device is the crash box. This is used for every type of accident from car and train crashes to medieval warfare. This you can easily make.
Take a large empty tin with a lid like a large billy.put in one broken ceramic coffee mug, one crushed aluminum can, a few pennies, a few screws, one piece of wood (about the size of a fist), and two handfuls of pea-sized gravel. Tape the lid shut with gaffer tape—around the seam. Keep the lid on tight or the junk or its soon-to-be fine dust will leak out. Don’t use glasses or wine bottles because they powderize too much. Ceramic coffee mugs are sturdier. Experiment with crash sounds, you can roll, shake or just drop the box. It all sounds different.
Look at an example of real life foley being produced in a studio
Modern cinemas are noted for being small black boxes with the walls draped in cloth and low ceilings all for focussing on the front screen and a clearly hearing the dialogue broadcast from carefully positioned speakers. This was not so during the silent era. It was just stepping out from vaudeville and the theatre itself was as much part of the experience as what was on the screen – just look at the State Theatre in Sydney where our music came from. The films were accompanied by live music and live acts and sing a longs were interposed between films to rest patrons eyes. A whole show could go for hours and was run by the leader of the orchestra or MC in big theatres. I have been studying early cinema practice and working in the National Library on their collection of film music from the State Theatre Sydney to reproduce an authentic silent film experience for a modern audience. For this I have a film orchestra as would have been used in the time that has helped to develop the show. Many of these musicians are also expert in the jazz of that era as most comedies were accompanied by popular numbers I also have a Foley – sound effects person as was used in the big theatres. This experience is what we want to give modern people a touch of, Sydney cinema of the 1920s.